Definition and meaning of home rule: Home rule means that a city or town has the power to make its own laws and decisions on local issues, instead of having the state government make those decisions for them. It gives local communities more control over what happens in their area. Rooted in the belief that those who live in a community are best equipped to make decisions about its governance, home rule underscores the principle of local self-determination.
In the United States, the concept of home rule is primarily associated with local governance, especially concerning cities and municipalities. Historically, American cities were subject to "Dillon's Rule," named after Judge John Forrest Dillon, which stated that municipalities were mere extensions of the state, with no inherent powers of their own. Over time, as urban centers grew in size and complexity, this centralized approach became increasingly unsustainable. Recognizing the unique challenges and needs of growing cities, many states amended their constitutions or passed statutes granting "home rule" powers. Under this new system, municipalities could pass and enforce ordinances, regulate land use, and govern various local matters without always having to seek state permission. The extent and nature of home rule can vary widely from state to state. Some offer broad autonomy, while others provide a narrower scope of freedom.
At its core, "home rule" embodies the spirit of localism. It posits that communities, whether cities or regions, possess a distinct identity, with unique challenges and aspirations. Granting local entities the authority to manage their affairs can ensure a more responsive, efficient, and democratic governance structure. However, balance is also important – ensuring local autonomy does not compromise broader unity or lead to significant disparities in rights or services across regions.