Definition and meaning of strategic voting: Strategic voting, also known as tactical voting, is a practice where voters choose a candidate based not solely on their personal preference, but on the likelihood of influencing the outcome of an election in a specific way. This behavior is particularly prevalent in electoral systems like the United States' two-party system, where the dynamics of winner-takes-all elections often compel voters to consider the broader implications of their vote beyond their individual preference.
Strategic voting often involves voters selecting a candidate they perceive as the “lesser of two evils,” rather than their ideal candidate. This is typically done to prevent a less favored candidate from winning. Voters may feel that a vote for their preferred candidate, especially if they are a third-party or independent candidate, might inadvertently aid the election of their least preferred candidate.
Strategic voting is closely tied to concerns about vote splitting and the spoiler effect, where a third-party candidate takes votes away from a more viable candidate, leading to the victory of an opposing candidate.
Here are some key implications of strategic or tactical voting:
Impact on Voter Choice and Satisfaction: Strategic voting can limit genuine voter choice, leading to dissatisfaction and a sense that the electoral system does not fully represent voter preferences.
Effect on Third-Party and Independent Candidates: The practice of strategic voting can adversely affect the viability of third-party and independent candidates, perpetuating the dominance of the two major parties.
Influence on Political Polarization: Strategic voting may contribute to political polarization, as voters are often forced to align with one of two dominant parties, even if their views are more nuanced.
Electoral reforms like ranked choice voting, proportional representation, or open primaries could mitigate the need for strategic voting. These reforms can enable voters to express their true preferences without fear of inadvertently aiding the election of their least preferred candidate, thereby enhancing the representativeness and legitimacy of the electoral process.