Definition and meaning of cloture: "Cloture" is a term deeply rooted in legislative procedures, particularly in the United States Senate. The term represents a crucial mechanism designed to control the duration of debate on a given issue, effectively limiting or ending a filibuster. Originating from the French word "clôture," meaning "closure," cloture is a formal process that seeks to bring debates to a prompt conclusion, allowing for a vote to be taken on the matter being discussed.
The concept of cloture was introduced into the United States Senate in 1917, following a period when there was no procedural method to end debate. Senators could use the filibuster, an extended debate technique, to delay or block legislative action indefinitely. The introduction of cloture was a response to these unlimited debates, providing a structured way to conclude discussion and move forward with decision-making.
In the U.S. Senate, cloture is invoked through a specific process:
Filing for Cloture: A senator files a cloture motion, which requires the signature of at least 16 senators. This motion is presented on the floor and indicates the intention to end debate on a particular bill or nomination.
Waiting Period: After the motion is filed, there is a mandatory waiting period, typically two legislative days, before the Senate can vote on the cloture motion.
Vote for Cloture: To pass the cloture motion and end the filibuster, a specific number of votes is required. Historically, this threshold was set at two-thirds of the senators present and voting, but since 1975, it has been three-fifths of all senators duly chosen and sworn, effectively 60 votes in a full Senate of 100 members.
Post-Cloture Period: Once cloture is invoked, the Senate may spend up to 30 additional hours debating the bill or nomination, after which a final vote is taken. Amendments can be made during this period, but their scope is limited.
Cloture serves as a vital tool in balancing the right of extended debate with the need for legislative efficiency. It ensures that a single senator or a small group cannot indefinitely delay legislative action while maintaining the ability for substantial discussion on important issues.
The cloture rule has undergone changes over time, reflecting evolving attitudes toward the balance between minority rights and majority rule in the Senate. The lowering of the cloture vote threshold from two-thirds to three-fifths is a significant example of this.
Cloture has also been a subject of debate and criticism. Critics argue that it can be used to stifle meaningful debate and minority voices in the Senate. Others contend that the current threshold for invoking cloture is too high, leading to legislative gridlock, especially in a closely divided Senate.