Terms Glossary

GoodParty.org's Terms Glossary is a list of definitions of words from the political and elections world. These terms are from an independent's perspective with an eye toward reform. If you have a suggestion for a new definition, send it to ask@goodparty.org.

X of Y

Definitional and meaning of X of Y: "X of Y" refers to a type of voting system in which voters are allowed to vote for more than one candidate in a race, rather than just one. Instead of choosing just one candidate, the voter can select "X" number of candidates out of "Y" total number of candidates running for a particular office.

This system is also known as "proportional representation" or "preferential voting" and is used in a number of countries around the world, but not widely used in the United States.

One example of a system similar to "X of Y" in the United States is ranked-choice voting, which allows voters to rank candidates in order of preference. If no candidate receives a majority of first-choice votes, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated, and their votes are redistributed to the remaining candidates based on the voters' second choice. This process continues until one candidate has a majority of votes. This system is used in a few cities and states in the United States, like Maine.

The "X of Y" voting system is considered more democratic as it allows for a more accurate representation of the will of the voters and encourages more diverse representation. It also discourages negative campaigning and the need for the "lesser of two evils" mentality.


Definition and meaning of xenophobia: Xenophobia is a negative sentiment towards those perceived as foreign or different, and can manifest in various forms of hostility, from fear and mistrust to hate and violence. To put it simply, xenophobia is an irrational fear of "the other," those who are perceived as different or foreign. This fear is often rooted in a feeling of cultural superiority, and is commonly directed towards immigrants, refugees, and other minority groups. In the American political landscape, xenophobia can be seen in the way certain political factions have chosen to express their opposition to certain issues, such as immigration or helping refugees, in a way that is more about fear-mongering than an honest debate. This fear-mongering can take the form of false narratives, misleading statements, and extreme rhetoric that is designed to paint a negative picture of those perceived as different. Furthermore, xenophobia can be seen in the way some political actors have attempted to delegitimize independent candidates and limit the diversity of voices that are heard in the political arena, in an attempt to maintain the status quo of a two-party system. Ultimately, xenophobia is an irrational fear of difference that has the potential to do serious damage to individuals, communities, and society as a whole, and is something that all reform-minded Americans should strive to combat.